Venus, the destroyer of Worlds
Updated: Dec 13, 2020
There are a great many stories and legends about a rogue planet X in our short human history that have fascinated me greatly in the course of my present life.
Over the years I have read many books and dug deep into tons of ancient records, thoroughly examining various past civilizations knowledge of the subject of said rogue planets and delved into the references from where said works on the matter at hand have been obtained.
I usually run into two common roadblocks in this sort of research.
Dogma and Academia, and they seem to be linked to each other.
Dogma as a block to everything sane and rational I understand fully, but Academia being stamped by Dogma of various types renders my mind agog from the close minded modus operandi that these types exhibit as a disturbing character trait.
Due to academia and dogma fudging of facts over the millennia, there may indeed be more than one of these wandering planets in our past that wrought all manner of havoc and mayhem on our world as well as others in our solar system, like Mars, Venus and the late planet Tiamat for example.
We have the asteroid belt and debris out in the Oort cloud and beyond that stand as testimony to the destruction of Tiamat and maybe one other planet whose shattered fragments are a monument to what transpired in those regions at some point in the very violent past of our solar system.
We have also been studying some very strange correlations from our own recorded history along with all of the evidence that went with it and we have been checking hundreds of sites on the planet to verify these data sets with their stark evidence for ourselves.
Also making sense of what events could lead to the seas parting in the time of Exodus need some explanation, as do the various plagues and pestilence that came with it.
It would seem that the wandering planet wreaking mayhem and destruction in the solar system over the last 6000 years was not Nibiru at all as has been supposed by some.
It was in fact Venus in 3700 BC and twice in around 1500 BC, (separated by 52 years) and then Mars became the bad boy between 800 and 700 BC after Venus and Mars collided with each other, knocking Mars and Venus into new orbits.
In recent times we have also discovered that hundreds of millions of rogue planets wander between solar systems and this influence also needs to be baked into the reckoning.
The last 3 years I have also had several AMD threadripper rigs running very special simulation software in a cluster grid and we have come up with several new scenarios that fit the planetary picture of our solar system using them.
I have also come into possession of a CRAY CS system powered by AMD EPYC 7002 CPU's to also run various modeling systems.
This is helping us process and analyze data from Mars rovers and various instruments in space such as Hubble.
Ancient records persistently claim they could see the atmosphere of Mars and the rovers on Mars have confirmed some theories about Mars and it's missing water and rivers.
The water did not dissipate millions of years ago, it happened much less recently than that. As In the last 10,000 years and more specifically when Mars and Venus collided with each other.
Imagine the heat of Venus when it touched Mars and what that heat and contact did to Mars.
Our new modelling almost exactly leaves us looking at what Mars is now.
It would seem the atmosphere and most of the water on Mars evaporated when this happened and I would bet big carrots is now to be found in the complex atmosphere of Venus.
The globular aspect of planet formation tells us that Mars should not be where it now is either so the planets getting moved and knocked into different orbits has to be fact due to this evidence.
If it doesn't fit it doesn't fit!!
Another revelation is whatever other wandering planets travel through our solar system from time to time can actually cause the planets to bounce around and change their orbits due to a combination of electro-gravitational factors such as the electrical charge of the invading planet or body moving through our solar system.
New observational data from past civilizations we have found also place Mars in an orbit INSIDE that of Earth, NOT where it is today.
So close in fact we could once see clouds and water on Mars.
Velikovsky was right about this supposition as well and also explains a great many other mysteries about Mars that have been plaguing us greatly.
I will shortly be posting a new blog as these pages have limits apparently.
Nibiru by the way, as a planet of the Anunnaki refers to a time some 437,000 years before the present era. More of that in yet another blog!
I believe Nibiru was trapped by the gravitational attraction of the Sun but when it got to a certain distance in the nearby vicinity of the sun a powerful charge from the Sun and this planet ejected it from our solar system.
I believe this planet is now headed toward Sirius where a similar interaction will shoot it back to our Sun and I believe there are more than one of these planets in this situation that get tossed between neighboring Suns.
It is clear that for long periods that things were fairly stable but these other bodies and resulting orbits and positions clearly result in different conditions where different species of plant and creatures take root to suit the conditions at hand.
We can see in the fossil record that the Earth was a dead barren rock and then suddenly life arrives and gets wiped out and then arrives again.
This is a continuous cycle.
But you can see from the proteizoic era that there was no life on Earth in that era.
It is also starting to look to me like the dinosaur era was not as long ago as we currently think it was.
Surviving pottery from South America depicting various tribes people riding various dinosaurs like horses that are 4000-10,000 years old have made me reconsider the timing of the dinosaur period.
I think the glaciation and high temperature exposure with various exotic radiation has messed with our ability to time our past accurately.
The appearance of Venus in our night sky in its current position can only be traced back to between 1500-2000 BC by the way.
It also seems to have made several passes as a spectacular comet 52 years after the first 1500 BC event to finally settle in the Orbit where it now lies after said collision hoohah with Mars.
Close correlation attempts put these final passes of Venus closer to 1500 BC than to 2000 BC.
At this time, Venus passed by Earth so closely that the tug on our crust, magnetic core and the electromagnetic field effect on our Earth from this huge passing body was dramatically devastating to the crust and oceans as well as all life on the planet.
This close proximity also altered the orbit of both bodies significantly.
This effect was not as devastating as the first pass that it made in roughly 3700 BC though.
Today, the orbit of Venus is static around the sun, but it has some very peculiar characteristics and traits that confirm the ideas of one Immanuel Velikovsky, who correctly claimed a lot of things about Venus that have come to be proven correct by no less than NASA and a great many boffins and space cadet gurus in their employ.
Oh, and one Albert Einstein also eventually agreed his Pal Immanuel was correct with many of his theories before he died by the way.
Velikovsky also suggested that the stable Darwinian evolution theory is complete and utter bunk, and outlined precisely why.
This is something I knew for a fact myself the very day I was born.
You only have to swiftly realize that there are many species on the Earth that have not ever evolved one IOTA to consign the paper bearing Darwin's Origin of species to it's only meaningful task, that of igniting the charcoal of a Big Green Egg grill for a fantastic barbecue experience.
Darwin's theory only holds water if the solar system is a stable and unchanging environment for millions of Eons.
Sadly this is not the reality and this has never been the reality.
We know for example from recent historical records that up to 800 BC a year on earth was a 360 day trip around the sun.
Our solar system is like a gigantic Van Der Graaf generator and the planets are all electrostatically charged balls with differing mass and behaviors.
Jupiter seems to be a creator of electrically charged planetary bodies the size of Earth and Venus which are ejected from its red spot in a process unknown to science of our age.
Dark matter to make the standard model work is also a good indicator of mental unwellness in academia at large.
The Higgs bosun or the so called God particle does not exist and if it did merely ask how it got it's mass to debunk that theory in one swift move.
The whole dark matter thing is in fact as smooth as a cat pissing on velvet.
Many Morons in academia have been trying to force fit Darwin's stable theory to that of past records and have been unable to correlate ancient star positions to what the Earth currently offers.
Open minded evaluation concludes the planet had a different orbit that indeed took 360 days to go around the sun.
Still earlier records indicate a 10 month cycle around the Sun and the Earth was dry and parched in this period which indicates it was much closer to the sun than it is now.
The glacial periods of the last 500,000 years are also a bit of evidence that the Earth's orbit has changed and was so far from the sun that we did freeze.
This has nothing to to with insolation and axis tilt in the current position of the Earth to explain it and all the other gubbins they have been trying to force fit.
The thing is simple, the planets bob and move around within the solar system based on other influences and planets moving through the solar system and their electric charge with gravity changes where it is at any given time.
The asteroid belt lies as testimony to the fact that something massive collided with another planet in the solar system and it was destroyed as a result of these heavenly machinations.
This all underlines Darwin's stable body theory as being total and utter 24 carat crap.
Darwin correctly thought he was a monkey
That is merely wishful thinking of the delusional on a grand old scale of denial almost as bad as that created by Dogma itself.
You can trace the glacial periods to orbits the Earth had at the time of the glaciation. Simple.
I was explaining this to a few Berkeley guys the other day and said specimen could not believe they had never considered this before.
Just goes to show what the education system does to people. It turns them into trains that can only move if they are on a track.
I always marvel at the shit that humans believe with respect to religion and stuff like Darwin's Origin of species and their bulldog tenacity to continue believing gobbledygook in the face of piles of evidence to the contrary.
Evolution has been proven to be a direct result of the mutation of genes by radiation of different types.
Radiation that came from close proximity supernova events or other factors that moved the planet in and out of various temperate zones....
Everyone has been assuming that the Earth has been in the same orbit for billions of years and it simply hasn't.
It would seem that all the major flood and cataclysm tales in our recent history have a sole perpetrator, and the guilty party to all this celestial drama is no less than the planet Venus herself.
Earthquakes and other maladies 700-800 years after Venus threatened the Earth seem to have been due to the new orbit of Mars after a Mars-Venus billiard ball sort of clash in the heavens, but again this was all due to Venus interceding in the orbit of Mars and triggering a whole bunch of domino effects in the solar system.
Somehow, as the legends of "myth" record, Venus was ejected from the red spot on Jupiter and we have many of these "myths" that survive, regaling us with the tale of how Jupiter gave birth to Venus to mull over.
These tales telling us this story were not myth at all and were incorrectly interpreted by those wearing Catholic cloth to be something else entirely because they were exceedingly dim of wit and in the business of legitimizing their own deliberately concocted feces fables.
Blinded by their own bollocks and spins on their own unhealthy tall tale justification process, actual reality seemed to be the myth and they just declared it as such.
Funny how the ancients only wrote "myth" don't you think?
The story of the past also coincides with massive floods and death on our planet that we just have not been able to explain through conventional wisdom as put forward by the Dogma and Academia delusion show.
The fact is, several events that caused the seas and the land to swap places and kill just about everything in the water and on land happened in 3700 BC and to a degraded extent in two smaller scale events in roughly 1500 BC.
Then, between 800 and 700 BC, after Mars and Venus knocked into each other and presented new problems for the solar system members due to their new post clash orbits and us here on Earth in particular, Mars roamed close enough to have further devastating effects on our planet.
These events were well recorded but as I said, men of cloth took a "religious" interpretation as to their meaning.
An egregious error if ever I saw one!
The damage surveyed on Earth from the Venus events cannot be caused by any asteroid or meteorite as it is clear that in around 3700 BC, huge waves of muck bearing forests and all the dead animals that lived in them were smashed and transported across the globe in massive waves.
The twin events in the 1500 BC era resulted in an East-West pull and drag and then a West-East pull and drag event some 52 years after the first event.
Satellite images of the Sahara where the eye of Africa can be seen from space is the best ever evidence that this occurred, we can still see how the sand was dragged in said directions by something exerting huge tidal influences on Earth!
In the 3700 BC event, the torsional force acting on the Earth was so strong that even mountains moved and were raised and in some cases sank and new seas were created in this maelstrom of death and violent change on our planet as these tidal torsional forces ripped the crust and seas that were covering crust apart in places as Venus went by.
Electro-gravito forces from Venus made the solid crust act like a water wave as forces acted on the magma in the core which then twisted and torsioned the crust and everything on it as its gravitation and magnetic influences impacted our planet
This violence did not transpire over hundreds of millennia or millions of years ago.
This violence happened in a short span of time that lasted days to weeks while both planetary bodies gravitational pulls twisted and torqued each other mightily.
Venus would likely have suffered very similar effects to Earth herself.
As the moon does today, the influences and tidal pulls would have started exerting very damaging effects on Earth from the moment it came into range and started exerting its massive tidal forces on our planet.
The fields of destruction across the globe but particularly in Siberia, Alaska, Europe, Africa and wherever life thrived, left us with piles of dead flora and fauna which lies up to 220 feet deep in places with clear evidence that sea and land swapped places and confirms a massive extraterrestrial body or different bodies, with considerable gravitational and electromagnetic influence caused mayhem here in at least three distinct and separate events over the last 6000 years.
Millions of these ancient Rhino's et al died suddenly all over the planet
The bodies of these mammoths and rhino that defrost from time to time are still fresh and edible once unfrozen.
The Inuit even feed them to their dogs when they come upon a freshly unfrozen specimen.
This means they did not decay, they were flash frozen post mortem.
The bodies are smashed, as are the forest trees that lie with them and they froze very suddenly before they had the chance to decay.
What force could possibly cause such mayhem on such a stupendous scale?
The fact is, our Genome says we are 203,000 years old, yet our historical records only take us back to 9000-15,000 years ago, depending on who's dates you care to believe.
Until recently our only real surviving historical records we had did in fact only reach back to 3700 BC.
Clearly, several violent events wiped our memory clean of these catastrophes, yet the evidence lies around us in plain sight as to these instances of cataclysm as well as written words in almost every culture that recorded them.
In fact I doubt any culture failed to mention it.
Just about every piano key and billiard ball came from the sea of death that left fields of frozen ivory strewn all over the planet in massive quantities.
After reading Velikovsky's stuff and discussing it with various JPL folks I think we have two culprits that can be held responsible for most maladies we suffered over the last last 6,000 years in three major events from Venus and two minor aftershock repercussive events from Mars.
The clearly visible scar that the wandering Venus left behind for us to gawk at on Mars from the electromagnetic fireworks show caused by the interaction of these two wandering planets also probably robbed Mars of its atmosphere and much of the magnetism of its core as an aftermath effect.
Records survive in our historical and religious texts that refer to the atmosphere of Mars stretched into many strange shapes like swords and animals of different kinds.
How did they see that from here on Earth you may very well ask? They saw it because Mars had a new orbit that brought it very close to Earth.
Mars was visible in those days to that level of detail.
There is evidence of massive electrical spark charge interactions that flew between the two planets as the magnetic fields of Mars and Venus acted upon each other while they danced together in the heavens.
It seems that Mars and Venus impacted each other on more than one occasion as well.
It is likely these collisions between Mars and Venus saved the Earth from total destruction.
I at first thought a weapon of huge proportion did this damage to Mars but this idea was consigned to the BGE fire starter pile when I worked out the energy that would have been required for this sort of damage plus my iron filings experiment confirmed this was what such an electro-gravitic event would produce on the surface of each planet.
I would wager a significant sum that when they can scan Venus under her clouds one day they will find a similar matching scar.
At the close of the 1950's people were very cocky and arrogant and assumed they knew everything there was to know about science bar a few minor details.
A tremendously bewildering stance and attitude from academia that I fail to understand to this very day!
Science and education is about learning more with an open mind. The book is never shut on anything!
The sentiment that you know everything and are not open to learning more seems to be half our problem these days.
My mouth drops to the floor when I see alleged scientists professing they know everything and the matter is closed and they simply won't discuss it again.
Archaeology, astronomy and math in particular seems full of these sorts of petulant morons acting like three year old spoilt shits.
The ridiculous reaction to Velikovsky when he predicted Venus was new, would be at least 600 degrees F and solid logical views of the unexplained death on Earth from 3700 BC and twin 1500 BC events and their cause referenced from recorded history annals these morons in academia (sic) classified as "myth" seems to have been rather a strong but typical human overreaction to a logical and exquisitely rational argument.
Unfortunately for said protesters, since 1950 Velikovsky has been proven absolutely correct in a great many of his thoughts and ideas.
In fact almost everything he so elaborately suggested has been verified as fact.
He did not do much work here either, in truth, it was all recorded in the annals of history.
All he had to do was pull it out and examine it with an open mind and put the pieces together.
These protesters of his hailing from academia were in fact the heretics, not Velikovsky!
So much for the education (sic) and IQ (double sic) of those protesters of his hailing from academia!
Venus birthed by Jupiter
When I witness agents of academia behaving they way they did against Velikovsky and others like him I am prompted to think, well, here truly begins a new genus of man, behold the Homo Ignoramus!!
Now let me tell you the new age specimen of Homo Ignoramus running around the planet today is truly fascinating to behold and observe in their various sub-genus of Ignoramus.
There appears to be many thousands of variants of new age Homo Ignoramus as well, all trying to blend in until they open their mouths, at which point they are exposed forever.
Don't even start me on the subject of the entitlement most Millennial variants of Homo Ignoramus carry with them, along with their delusional beliefs and non existent work ethic.
Let's look at what man does not know very briefly to make said point.
I will have to nutshell it because man basically knows nothing about a great many things indeed.
Man does not know what life is and how it came to be on this planet, or if any other planets or moons in our solar system have life in them or on them.
Man also does not know what created this solar system and how it came into being.
Man does not know what the force he calls gravitation is that allows him to walk with his feet on the ground and if it is a push or a pull force or if it is something else that keeps him on the ground.
Sure, he has developed hypotheses about it, but ultimately, he still does not know.
Man also does not know how the continents came to be or what keeps reseeding life after cataclysmic catastrophes that wipe out all living things on the Earth.
Man believes that oil and hydrocarbons come from rotting dinosaurs but other planets that never had life have hydrocarbons and petroleum gasses in massive quantities on them.
Man thinks he has lived on the planet Earth for millions of years but his MTA DNA data shows a mere 203,000 years and he only has historical records of a few thousand years to contemplate and mull over.
Man does not know how mountains and deserts came into existence or what put the salt in the sea or where that salt came from.
Man does not know why the Bronze age preceded the Iron age even though Iron is the most abundant element on the planet!
Man thinks he evolved from monkeys but cannot find the evidence to support it apart from the fact that many of them behave like monkeys!
Man also cannot explain the flood legends in all societies on the planet, bar none (Yes even Egypt and Japan).
Man also believes he has risen from a single cell to the homo sapien being he is now in all his short genus span or that a being called God created him for reasons unknown just because...
In short, man don't know shit!
He thinks about science and religion in the same terms and is blessed with infinite helpings of crass stupidity.
Along comes a guy like Velikovsky, a very well educated man and suddenly he is a damnation and heretic that must be discredited by the most gifted Homo Ignoramus morons that academia has on offer just because he dared challenge the accepted wisdom that is absolutely flawed that they claim is settled?
Such stupendous arrogance!
Come on people, get with the darn program willya!!
I have watched a great many TV and film interviews of this Velikovsky fellow and boy, what a fabulous intellect!
For me, he is on a par with Tesla, Ramanujan and Einstein except he had fifty times more common sense than the lot of them combined.
Venus by the way, turned out to be much newer and hotter than what even Velikovsky had predicted.
The last probe recorded temperatures of 857 degrees F on the surface of Venus, when all the educated morons of the day were stating it would be 17 degrees C and could be as high as 89 degrees C but no more.
Venus also spins so slow that a day on Venus is longer than the time it takes to go around the sun! The only planet where a year is shorter than a day!!
Velikovsky also predicted radio signals would be coming from Jupiter and that is a fact that cannot be contradicted.
We have several probes in space around Jupiter sending us daily data from the planet with this information.
The recent discovery on Earth of a giant submarine canyon that goes around the planet almost two full twisted rotations is stark evidence of a violent torque that the planet was subjected to in the very recent past.
There is also that layer of ash in the oceans of extraterrestrial origin that underlies all oceans to contemplate and muse about at length as well as affording us the opportunity to contemplate the paleomagnetic evidence we have that bears out that the Earth's magnetic poles were reversed, swapped and the terrestrial axis with them, and this happened fairly often.
We now accept these things as solid known facts.
We have clear evidence that the solar system is not electromagnetically sterile at all as Darwin and other harebrained fools suggested in the past.
In his defense he was not a scientist and it was an entertaining theory, while it lasted.
The fittest did not survive, only those with workable gene mutations survived!
Velikovsky's prediction that Venus is covered in hydrocarbons and petroleum gases was verified as fact by Mariner II and several others dispatched to re-verify the data since.
The greenhouse effect alone cannot explain the temperature of Venus, nor can radiation decay or the heat of the sun itself.
Venus is 67 million miles from the sun and should be much cooler than it is now if it was as old as the other planets.
Venus is in fact shrouded in a 15 mile thick layer of hydrocarbon gases 45 miles above the surface of the planet.
NASA stated they were most puzzled this atmosphere was thicker than that of the Earth itself and the litany of special studies to debunk and denounce Velikovsky's lucky guesses as a result of the data validating his work is truly stunning.
The poor men of science whose delicate and fragile egos got fucked up six-love, six love by a hebrew with common sense, oh my!!
Venus also spins retrogradely and very slowly as if newly captured by the sun's gravity, because that is exactly the situation.
By the way, please note that there are plenty of hydrocarbons on Venus and they never had dinosaurs there, ever!
If Venus is cooling and it is 847 Degrees F on its surface now, I suspect the old dinosaurs would not have thrived there for any length of time!
Maybe they had thermal underwear but the grass and plants they ate burns at much lower temperatures so obvious logic rules that out as well unless the plants there also wore thermal underwear..
Also, Venus is hotter at night on it's dark side than the day side facing the sun!!
Go chew on that shit for awhile!!
It would seem that the theories of science are only held for the vested interests they represent for those that hold them and the financial gains they happen to make from them or the academic kudos of the boys in the close minded academia club or the protection of brittle and fragile egos proven wrong by cold facts and even colder logic.
It is likely that it is a genus flaw in the DNA of the Homo Ignoramus that makes its members stubbornly refuse to use the organ between their ears or an added gene mutation that makes them behave like retarded French bulldogs when it comes to matters of science and dogma. (Apologies to both the French and the bulldog genus at large).
The events of 3700 BC and 1500 BC are merely three acts of a great and violent drama that is the life of our solar system.
Modern physics and Quantum theory has proven dramatic changes to the microcosm involving atoms and electrons et al occur all the time and the solar system is a macrocosm of the same events in that both are not that dissimilar to each other at all.
However each has laws of nature unto their own realms. Planets are not pretend atoms circling the nucleus or electron or proton copycats.
Planets have mass and electromagnetic gravity properties.
It should be remembered that a law is but a deduction from experience, experiment, logic and observation and therefore any derived laws must conform to historical facts and not the facts with the laws.
An important distinction.
Of course many things you just do not know answers to, other than what someone else may have told you about the subject at hand, but the same rules apply.
If you don't know, educate yourself with a questioning and open mind!
Do not close it when you feel something is settled and understood.
Nothing is settled and understood to finality, its the latest information and deduction we have based on the data of the moment.
The other issue re these events in the recent past to contemplate is the subject of the collective amnesia of the people of Earth as to these massive non-trivial events?
Is this psychological or enforced trauma based?
Billions of beings wiped out in a flash with seas and mountains changing places is hardly a trivial event.
Did someone re-seed the planet again after these violent cataclysmic events?
This seems pretty likely to me!
It is clear to me that cryogenic seed banks called arks were parked in space, on the Moon, Mars and anywhere else they could hide them from the tidal effects of Venus as she swept by.
No doubt there were also survivors on Earth as the old biblical tales refer to.
Whatever the case, the fact the genetics changed overnight to adapt to the new climate is also pretty interesting.
Look at these old woolly rhinos and Mammoths then go look at elephants and modern rhino's (what's left of them at any rate!) and then compare them.
This genetic tinkering did not come from tidal gravitational waves!! There was no time for evolution from 3700 BC to what we have today for these examples.
Something was tinkering with the survivors in a genetic laboratory.
Ask yourself why the Bronze age preceded the Iron age when bronze alloys are so much more difficult to derive than plain old iron?
Does not make sense to me at all that one.
Consider these flood legends from all over the globe and the wave of silt and such covering everything.
There are literally thousands of Pyramids disguised as mountains and hills covered in this muddy silty shit to bear out the fact a huge wave of mud and dead carrion buried a lot of things on our planet in a massively violent manner in the recent past.
Yet here we all are!!
The many pyramids and other cities and artifacts such as the Easter Island Moai were not deliberately buried, it was all a natural consequence of Venus tidal pull and influence on our planet as it went past us and the huge tidal wave of muck that buried them from the tsunami wave that resulted.
The biggest and most damaging tsunami the Earth ever had.
Let us look at the theory of the origins of the planetary system, which we by and large reference through the work of one Isaac Newton on the subjects of celestial mechanics and gravitational theory.
It is alleged that the sun attracts the planets and if it was not for a second force they would actually all fall into the sun and be consumed by it.
However, each planet or bodies in orbit around the sun is impelled by its own momentum to proceed in a direction away from the sun forming the aforementioned orbit around it.
A question oft neglected is ok, but where did the initial force come from that gifted its inertia to these planets and is it a push or a pull force and what was it's genesis?
All theories of the origin of the planetary system and the motive forces that sustain the motion of its members go back to the gravitational theory and the celestial mechanics work of Newton.
The sun attracts the planets, and if it were not for a second urge, they would fall into the sun, however, each planet is impelled by its momentum to proceed in a direction away from the sun, and as a result, an orbit around the sun is formed.
Similarly, a satellite or a moon is subject to an urge that drives it away from its primary, but the attraction of the primary bends the path on which the satellite would have proceeded if there had been no attraction between the bodies, and out of these urges a satellite orbit is traced.
The inertia or persistence of motion implanted in planets and satellites was postulated by Newton, but the lazy bastard did not explain how or when the initial pull or push occurred.
The theory of the origin of the planetary system which dominated the entire nineteenth century was proposed by Swedenborg, the theologian, and Kant, the philosopher.
It was put into scientific terms by Laplace, although not explored by him quantitatively, and in brief is as follows:
Hundreds of millions of years ago the sun was nebulous and very large and had a form approaching that of a disc.
This disc was as wide as the whole orbit of the farthest of the planets.
It rotated around its center.
Owing to the process of compression caused by gravitation, a globular sun shaped itself in the center of the disc.
Due to the rotating motion of the whole nebula, a centrifugal force was in action; parts of matter more on the periphery resisted the retracting action directed toward the center and broke up into rings which balled into globes –these were the planets in the process of forming themselves.
In other words, as a result of the shrinkage of the rotating sun, matter broke away and portions of this solar material developed into the planets.
The plane in which the planets revolve is called the equatorial plane of the sun.
This theory is now regarded as unsatisfactory in terms of solving adequately all the bodies within it.
Three of many objections in particular stand out above others in the list.
First, the velocity of the axial rotation of the sun at the time the planetary system was built could not have been sufficient to enable bands of matter to break away, and even if they had broken away, they would not have balled into globes.
Second, the Laplace theory does not explain why the planets have larger angular velocity of daily rotation and yearly revolution that the sun alone could have imparted to them.
Third, what made some of the satellites revolve retrogradely, or in a direction opposite to that of most of the members of the solar system?
It appears to be clearly established that, whatever structure we assign to a primitive sun, a planetary system cannot come into being merely as the result of the sun’s rotation.
If a sun, rotating alone in space, is not able by itself to produce its family of planets and satellites, it becomes necessary to invoke the presence and assistance of some second body.
This brings us rapidly to the idea of tidal theory.
The tidal theory, which, in its earlier stage, was called the planetesimal theory, assumes that long ago another star passed close to the sun.
An immense tide of matter arose from the sun in the direction of the passing star and was torn from the body of the sun but remained in its domain, this being the material out of which the planets were built.
In the planetesimal theory the mass that was torn out broke into small parts which solidified in space and some were driven out of the solar system, and some fell back into the sun, but the rest moved around it because of its (the sun) gravitational pull.
Sweeping in elongated orbits around the sun, they conglomerated, rounded out their orbits as a result of mutual collisions, and grew to form planets and satellites around the planets.
The tidal theory does not allow the matter torn from the sun to disperse first and reunite later and the tide broke into a few portions that rather quickly changed from gaseous to fluid, and then to the solid state.
In support of this theory it was indicated that such a tide, when broken into a number of “drops,” would probably build the largest “drops” out of its middle portion, and small “drops” from its beginning (near the sun) and its end (most remote from the sun).
Actually, Mercury, nearest to the sun, is a small planet.
Venus is larger; earth is a little larger than Venus; Jupiter is three hundred and twenty times as large as the earth (in mass); Saturn is somewhat smaller than Jupiter; Uranus and Neptune, though large planets, are not as large as Jupiter and Saturn.
Pluto is much smaller than Mercury.
The first difficulty of the tidal hypothesis lies in the very point adduced in its support, the mass of the planets.
Between the earth and Jupiter there revolves a small planet, Mars, a tenth part of the earth in mass, where, according to the scheme, a planet ten to fifty times as large as the earth should be expected.
Again, Neptune is larger and not smaller than Uranus.
However there was once a planet there called Tiamat which does fit the bill nicely, so this theory for me scores brownie points because of Tiamat.
Tiamat was a very large planet.
However, Mars screws with the theory!! Where did Mars come from?
Also the rings around Saturn are interesting.
I have an idea that Jupiter and Saturn birth the planets by cleavage and that two smaller cleavage efforts collided with each other creating these rings around Saturn, but it's just a theory I am toying with.....
Another difficulty with tidal theory by the way is the allegedly rare chance of an encounter between two stars.
One of the authors of the tidal theory gave this estimate of its probability: “At a rough estimate we may suppose that a given star’s chance of forming a planetary system is one in 5,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.”
Since the lifespan of a star is much shorter than this figure, “only about one star in 100,000 can have formed a planetary system in the whole of its life.”
In the galactic system of one hundred million stars, planetary systems “form at the rate of about one per five billion years.
Our own system, with an age of the order of two billion years, is probably one of the youngest systems in the whole galactic system of stars.”
The nebular and tidal theories alike regard the planets as derivatives of the sun, and the satellites as derivatives of the planets.
The problem of the origin of the moon can be regarded as "disturbing" to the tidal theory.
However, I believe the moon is in fact an artificial structure that was deliberately placed where it now is.
Its orbit and mechanics are definitely not natural.
Being smaller than the earth, the theory espouses that the moon completed earlier the process of cooling and shrinking, and the lunar volcanoes had already ceased to be active.
It is calculated that the moon possesses a lighter specific weight than the earth.
It is assumed that the moon was produced from the superficial layers of the earth’s body, which are rich in light silicon, whereas the core of the earth, the main portion of its body, is made of heavy metals, particularly iron.
However, this assumption postulates the origin of the moon as not simultaneous with the origin of the earth, while the earth, being formed out of a mass ejected from the sun, had to undergo a process of leveling, which placed the heavy metals in the core and silicon at the periphery, before the moon parted from the earth by a new tidal distortion.
This would mean two consecutive tidal distortions in a system where the chance of even one is held extremely rare.
If the passing of one star near another happens among one hundred million stars once in five billion years, two occurrences like this for one and the same star seem quite un-credible unless it was a binary star that impacted us........
The closest star to earth is Sirius and we have recently found there are gravitational links between our sun and Sirius.
Maybe suns from each passing binary impacted each other?
Meanwhile, back to the tidal theory with respect to the planets, as no better explanation is available, the satellites are supposed to have been torn from the planets by the sun’s attraction on their first perihelion passage, when, sweeping along on stretched orbits, the planets came close to the sun.
The circling of the satellites around the planets also confronts existing cosmological theories with many difficulties.
Laplace built his theory of the origin of the solar system on the assumption that all planets and satellites revolve in the same direction.
They do not.
Venus and Uranus both spin retrograde to the other planets.
So we can add the work of Laplace to the Big Green Egg charcoal ignition program as well but it is useful reference to that inadequate thinking genre...
He wrote that the axial rotation of the sun and the orbital revolutions and axial rotations of the six planets, the moon, the satellites, and the rings of Saturn present forty-three movements, all in the same direction.
“One finds by the analysis of the probabilities that there are more than four thousand billion chances to one that this arrangement is not the result of chance and this probability is considered higher than that of the reality of historical events with regard to which no one would venture any doubts.”
He deduced that a common and primal cause directed the movements of the planets and satellites.
Since the time of Laplace, new members of the solar system have been discovered.
Now we know that though the majority of the satellites revolve in the same direction as the planets revolve and in sync with the direction the sun rotates, the moons of Uranus revolve in a plane almost perpendicular to the orbital plane of their planet, and three of the eleven moons of Jupiter, one of the nine moons of Saturn, and the one moon of Neptune revolve retrograde style.
These facts contradict the main argument of the Laplace theory: a rotating nebula could not produce satellites revolving in two opposing directions.
In the tidal theory the direction of the planets’ movements depended on the star that passed: it passed in the plane in which the planets now revolve and in a direction which determined their circling from west to east.
Why should the satellites of Uranus revolve perpendicularly to that plane and some moons of Jupiter and Saturn in reverse directions?
Why does Uranus spin retrograde?
This the tidal theory thoroughly fails to explain.
According to all existing theories, the angular velocity of the revolution of a satellite must be slower than the velocity of rotation of its parent.
However, the inner satellite of Mars revolves more rapidly than Mars rotates.
Some of the difficulties that confront the nebular and tidal theories also confront another theory that has been proposed in recent years.
According to said theory the sun is supposed to have been a member of a binary star system.
A passing star crushed the companion of the sun, and out of its debris planets were formed.
In further development of this particular hypothesis, it is maintained that the larger planets were built out of the debris, and the smaller ones, the so-called “terrestrial” planets, were formed from the larger ones by a process of cleavage.
The birth of smaller, solid planets out of the larger, gaseous ones is conjectured in order to explain the difference in the relation of weight to volume in the larger and smaller planets; but this theory is unable to explain the difference in the specific weights of the smaller planets and their satellites.
By a process of cleavage, the moon was born of the earth; but since the specific weight of the moon is greater than that of the larger planets and smaller than that of the earth, it would seem to be more in accord with the theory that the earth was born of the moon, despite its smaller size.
This confuses the argument.
The origin of the planets and their satellites remains unsolved.
The theories not only contradict one another, but each of them bears within itself its own contradictions. “If the sun had been unattended by planets, its origin and evolution would have presented no difficulty.”
The red spot on Jupiter however, gives us a large clue that verifies this cleavage hypothesis somewhat.
Jupiter ejects large masses in a process unknown to science from this red spot and we have recorded historical visual observations that confirm this is the case.
The origin of el Comets
The nebular and tidal theories endeavor to explain the origin of the solar system but do not include the comets in their schemes.
Comets are obviously much more numerous than planets.
More than sixty comets are known to definitely belong to our solar system.
These are the comets of short periods (less than eighty years); they revolve in stretched ellipses and all but one do not go beyond the line marked by the orbit of Neptune.
It is estimated that, besides the comets of short periods, several hundred thousand comets visit the solar system; however, it is not known for certain that they return periodically.
They are seen presently at an approximate rate of five hundred in a century, and are said to have an average period of tens of thousands of years.
A few theories of the origin of comets have been proposed, but aside from one attempt to see in them planetesimals that did not receive a side pull sufficiently strong to bring them into circular orbits, no scheme has been developed that explains the origin of the solar system in its entirety, with all of its planets and comets and yet no cosmic theory can persist which limits itself to the problem of either planets or the comets exclusively.
One theory sees in the comets errant cosmic bodies arriving from interstellar space.
After approaching the sun, they turn away on an open (parabolic) curve.
If they happen to pass close to one of the larger planets, they may be compelled to change their open curves to ellipses and become comets of short period.
This is the theory of capture: comets of long periods or of no period are dislodged from their paths to become short-period comets.
What the origin of the long-period comets is remains an unanswered question.
The short-period comets apparently have some relation to the larger planets.
About fifty comets move between the sun and the orbit of Jupiter; their periods are under nine years.
Four comets reach the orbit of Saturn; two comets revolve inside the circle described by Uranus; and nine comets, with an average period of seventy-one years, move within the orbit of Neptune.
These comprise the system of the short-period comets as it is known at this time.
To the last group belongs the comet Haley, which, among the comets of short periods, has the longest period of revolution –approximately between seventy-five or seventy six years.
Then there is a great gap, after which there are comets that require thousands of years before they return to the sun, if they even return at all.
The distribution of the short-period comets suggested the idea that they were “captured” by the large planets.
This theory has for its support the direct observation that comets are disturbed on their path by the planets.
Another theory of the comets supposes their origin to have been in the sun, but in a manner unlike that conceived of in the tidal theory of the origin of planets.
Mighty whirls on the surface of the sun sweep ignited gases into great protuberances; these are observed daily.
This matter is driven off from the sun and returns to the sun in awesome visual displays of magneto-nuclear fireworks.
It is calculated that if the velocity of the ejection were to exceed 384 miles per second, the speed of motion in a parabola, the matter would not return to the sun but would become a long-range comet.
Then the path of the ejected mass might become perturbed as a result of its passage near one of the larger planets, and the comet would become one of a short period.
Birth of a comet in this manner has never been observed, and the probability that matter in explosion may reach a speed of 384 miles per second is highly questionable.
It was therefore supposed alternatively, that millions of years ago, when the activity of their gaseous masses was more dynamic, the large planets expelled comets from their bodies.
The speed required for the ejected mass to overcome the gravitational pull of the ejecting body is less in the case of the planets than in the case of the sun, owing to their smaller gravitational pull.
It is calculated that a mass hurled from Jupiter at a speed of about 38 miles per second, or at only a little more than a third of this velocity in the case of Neptune, would become expelled.
This variant of the theory neglects the question of the origin of the long-period comets.
However, an explanation was offered, according to which the large planets throw the comets that pass close to them from their short orbits into elongated ones, or even expel them entirely from the solar system.
When passing close to the sun, comets emit tails.
It is assumed that the material of the tail does not return to the comet’s head but is dispersed in space; consequently, the comets as luminous bodies must have a limited life.
If Halley’s comet has pursued its present orbit since late preCambrian times, it must “have grown and lost eight million tails, which seems improbable.”
If comets are wasted, their number in the solar system must permanently diminish, and no comet of short period could have preserved its tail since geological times.
However, as there are many luminous comets of short period, they must have been produced or acquired at some time when other members of the system, the planets and the satellites, were already in their places.
A theory has been offered that once the solar system moved through a nebula and obtained its comets there.
Did the sun emit planets by shrinkage or by tide, and comets by explosion?
Did the comets come from interstellar space and were they captured into the solar system by larger planets?
Did the larger planets produce the smaller planets by cleavage, or did they expel the short-period comets from their bodies?
It is admitted that we cannot know the truth about the origin of the planetary and cometary systems billions of years ago.
The problem of the origin and development of the solar system is it suffers from the label ‘speculative.’
It is frequently said that as we were not physically there when the system was formed, we cannot legitimately arrive at any idea as to how it was formed.
Not many thousands of years ago, we are taught by academia, great areas of Europe and North America were covered with mighty glaciers.
Perpetual ice lay not only on the slopes of high mountains, but loaded itself in heavy masses upon continents ranging even to the moderate latitudes.
Where today the Hudson, the Elbe, and the upper Dnieper flow, there were then frozen deserts.
They were like the immense glacier of Greenland that covers that frosty island.
There are signs that a retreat of the glaciers was interrupted by a new massing of ice, and that their borders differed at various times.
Geologists were able to find the boundaries of the glaciers.
Ice moves very slowly, pushing stones before it, and accumulations of stones or moraines remain when the glacier retreats and melts away.
Traces have been found of five or six consecutive displacements of the ice sheet during the Ice Age, or of five or six glacial periods.
Some unknown force repeatedly pushed the ice sheet toward moderate latitudes.
Neither the cause of the ice ages nor the cause of the retreat of the icy desert is known and the time of these retreats is also a matter of much speculation.
Many ideas were offered and guesses made to explain how the glacial epochs originated and why they terminated.
Some supposed that the sun at different times emits more or less heat, which causes periods of heat and cold on the earth; but no evidence that the sun is such a “variable star” was adduced to support this hypothesis.
Others conjectured that cosmic space has warmer and cooler areas, and that when our solar system travels through the cooler areas, ice descends upon latitudes closer to the tropics.
But no physical agents were found responsible for such hypothetical cold and warm areas in space to date and we have sent a great many probes to measure for such.
A few wondered whether the precession of the equinoxes or the slow change in the direction of the terrestrial axis might also cause periodic variations in the climate.
But it was shown that the difference in insolation could not have been great enough to have been responsible for the various glacial ages.
Still others thought to find the answer in the periodic variations in the eccentricity of the ecliptic (terrestrial orbit), with glaciation at the maximal eccentricity.
Some of them supposed that winter in aphelion, the remotest part of the ecliptic, would cause glaciation; and some thought that summer in aphelion would produce that effect.
Some scholars thought about the changes in the position of the terrestrial axis.
If the planet earth is rigid, as it is regarded to be (L. Kelvin), the axis could not have shifted in geological times by more than three degrees (George Darwin); if it were elastic, it could have shifted up to ten or fifteen degrees in a very slow process.
The cause of the ice ages was seen by a few scholars in the decrease of the original heat of the planet; the warm periods between the ice ages were attributed to the heat set free by a hypothetical decomposition of organisms in the strata close to the surface of the ground.
The increase and decrease in the action of warm springs were also considered.
Others supposed that dust of volcanic origin filled the terrestrial atmosphere and hindered insolation, or, contrariwise, that an increased content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere obstructed the reflection of heat rays from the surface of the planet.
A decrease in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would cause a fall of temperature (Arrhenius), but calculations were made to show that this could not be the real cause of the glacial ages (Ångström).
Changes in the direction of warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean were brought into the discussion, and the Isthmus of Panama was theoretically removed to allow the Gulf Stream to pass into the Pacific at the time of the glacial periods. But it was proved that the two oceans were already divided in the Ice Age; besides, a part of the Gulf Stream would have remained in the Atlantic anyway.
The periodic retreats of ice between the glacial periods would have required periodic removal and replacement of the Isthmus of Panama.
Other theories of equally hypothetical nature were proposed but the phenomena held responsible for the changes have not been proven to have existed, or to have been able to produce the effect.
All the above-mentioned theories and hypotheses fail if they cannot meet a most important condition: In order for ice masses to have been formed, increased precipitation must have taken place.
This requires a vastly increased amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, which is the result of increased evaporation from the surface of oceans but this could be caused by heat only.
A number of scientists pointed out this fact, and even calculated that in order to produce a sheet of ice as large as that of the Ice Age, the surface of all the oceans must have evaporated to a depth of a few feet.
Such an evaporation of oceans followed by a quick process of freezing, even in moderate latitudes, would have produced the ice ages.
The problem is: What could have caused the evaporation and immediate subsequent freezing?
As the cause of such quick alternation of heating and freezing of large parts of the globe is not apparent, it is conceded that “at present the cause of excessive ice-making on the lands remains a baffling mystery, a major question for the future reader of earth’s riddles.”
Not only are the causes of the appearance and later disappearance of the glacial sheet unknown, but the geographical shape of the area covered by ice is also a rather difficult problem.
Why did the glacial sheet, in the southern hemisphere, move from the tropical regions of Africa toward the south polar region and not in the opposite direction, and, similarly, why, in the northern hemisphere, did the ice move in India from the equator toward the Himalaya mountains and the higher latitudes?
Why did the glaciers of the Ice Age cover the greater part of North America and Europe, while the north of Asia remained free?
In America the plateau of ice stretched up to latitude 40 ° and even passed across this line while in Europe it reached latitude 50 °; while northeastern Siberia, above the polar circle, even above latitude 75 °, was not covered with this perennial ice.
All hypotheses regarding increased and diminished insolation due to solar alterations or the changing temperature of the cosmic space, and other similar hypotheses, cannot avoid being confronted with this problem.
Glaciers are formed in the regions of eternal snow; for this reason they remain on the slopes of the high mountains. The north of Siberia is the coldest place in the world.
Why did the Ice Age not touch this region, whereas it visited the basin of the Mississippi and all Africa south of the equator?
No satisfactory solution to this question has been proposed to date.
The planet earth has a stony shell –the lithosphere and it consists of igneous rock, like granite and basalt, with sedimentary rock on top.
The igneous rock is the original crust of the earth whereas sedimentary rock is deposited by water.
The inner composition of the earth is not known.
The propagation of seismic waves gives support to the assumption that the shell of the earth is over 2,000 miles thick and on the basis of the gravitational effect of mountain masses (the theory of isostasy), the shell is estimated to be only sixty miles thick.
The presence of iron in the shell or the migration of heavy metals from the core to the shell has not been sufficiently explained either by the way.
For these metals to have left the core, they must have been ejected by explosions, and in order to remain spread through the crust, the explosions must have been followed immediately by rapid cooling.
If, in the beginning, the planet was a hot conglomerate of elements, as the nebular as well as the tidal theories assume, then the iron of the globe should have become oxidized and combined with all available oxygen.
For some unknown reason this did not take place and thus the presence of oxygen in the terrestrial atmosphere is totally unexplained and exceedingly freaky to contemplate.
The water of the oceans contains a large amount of soluble sodium chloride which we know as common salt.
Sodium might have come from rocks eroded by rain but rocks are light in chlorine content and the proportion of sodium and chlorine in seawater calls for fifty times more chlorine in the igneous rock than what it actually contains.
The deep strata of igneous rock contains no signs of fossil life. Zero, Zilch, Nada..
Encased in sedimentary rock are skeletons of marine and land animals, often in many layers stacked one upon the other.
Not infrequently, igneous rock is found protruding into sedimentary rock or even covering it over large areas, pointing to successive eruptions of igneous rock that became heated and molten after there was life on the earth.
Upon strata which show no signs of fossil life are strata containing shells, and sometimes the shells are so numerous as to constitute the entire mass of the rock.
They are also often found in the hardest rock.
Higher strata contain skeletons of land animals, often of extinct species, and not infrequently, above the strata with the remains of land animals are other strata with marine fauna.
The species of the animals, and even their genera, change with the strata.
The strata often assumes an oblique position, sometimes being almost vertical; frequently they are faulted and overturned in many ways.
Cuvier (1769 –1832), the founder of vertebrate paleontology, or the science of petrified skeletons of animals possessing vertebrae, from fish to man, was much impressed by the picture presented by the sequence of the layers of earth.
“When the traveller passes over these fertile plains where gently flowing streams nourish in their course an abundant vegetation, and where the soil, inhabited by a numerous population, adorned with flourishing villages, opulent cities, and superb monuments, is never disturbed, except by the ravages of war, or by the oppression of the powerful, he is not led to suspect that Nature also has had her intestine wars, and that the surface of the globe has been broken up by revolutions and catastrophes.
But his ideas change as soon as he digs into that soil which now presents so peaceful an aspect.” Cuvier thought that great catastrophes had taken place on this earth, repeatedly changing sea beds into continents and continents into sea beds.
He held that genera and species were unchangeable since Creation; but, observing different animal remains in various levels of earth, he concluded that catastrophes must have annihilated life in vast areas, leaving the ground for other forms of life.
Where did these other genera come from?
Either they were newly created or, more likely they migrated from other parts of the world, which were not at that time also visited by cataclysms.
He could not find the cause of these cataclysms.
He saw in their traces “the problem in geology it is of most importance to solve,” but he realized that “in order to resolve it satisfactorily, it would be necessary to discover the cause of these events –an undertaking which presents a difficulty of quite a different kind.”
He knew only of “many futile attempts” already made and he did not find himself able to offer any solution. “These ideas have haunted, I may almost say have tormented me during my researches among fossil bones .”
Cuvier’s theory of stabilized forms of life and of annihilating catastrophes was supplanted by a theory of evolution in geology (Lyell) and biology (Darwin).
The mountains they say are what is left of plateaus eroded by wind and water in a very slow process.
Sedimentary rock is detritus of igneous rock eroded by rain, then carried to sea, and there slowly deposited.
Skeletons of birds and of land animals in these rocks are presumed to have belonged to animals that waded close to the shore of the sea in shallow water, died while wading, and were covered by sediment before fish destroyed the cadavers or the water separated the bones of their skeletons.
No widespread catastrophes disrupted the slow and steady process they claim.
The theory of evolution, which can be traced to Aristotle, and which was the teaching of Lamarck in the days of Cuvier and of Darwin after him, has been generally accepted as truth by natural sciences for almost a hundred years.
Sedimentary rock covers high mountains and the highest of all, the Himalayas.
Shells and skeletons of sea animals are found there.
This means that at some early time fish swam over these mountains. What caused the mountains to rise?
A force pushing from within or pulling from without or twisting on the sides must have elevated the mountains and lifted continents from the bottom of the sea and submerged other land masses.
If we do not know what these forces are, we cannot answer the problem of the origin of the mountains and of continents, wherever on the globe we are faced with it.
Here is how the question is put concerning the eastern coast of North America.
Not long ago in a geological sense, the flat plain from New Jersey to Florida was under the sea.
At that time the ocean surf broke directly on the Old Appalachian Mountains.
Previously the southeastern part of the mountain structure had sunk below the sea and become covered with a layer of sand and mud, thickening seaward.
The wedgelike mass of marine sediments was then uplifted and cut into by rivers, giving the Atlantic coastal plain of the United States.
Why was it uplifted?
To the westward are the Appalachians.
The geologist tells us of the stressful times when a belt of rocks extending from Alabama to Newfoundland was jammed, thrust together, to make this mountain system.
How was it done?
In former times the sea flooded the region of the great plains from Mexico to Alaska, and then withdrew.
Why this change?
The birth of the Cordilleras –“again the mystery of mountain-making clamors for solution.”
And so on all over the world.
The Himalayas were under the sea at one time.....
Now Eurasia is three miles or more above the bottom of the Pacific. Why?
The problem of mountain-making is a vexing one: many of them [mountains] are composed of tangentially compressed and over-thrust rocks that indicate scores of miles of circumferential shortening in the Earth’s crust.
Radial shrinkage is woefully inadequate to cause the observed amount of horizontal compression.
Therein lies the real perplexity of the problem of mountain-making.
Geologists have not yet found a satisfactory escape from this dilemma.
Even authors of textbooks confess their ignorance.
Why have sea floors of remote periods become the lofty high-lands of today?
What generates the enormous forces that bend, break, and mash the rocks in mountain zones?
These questions still await satisfactory answers.
The process of raising the mountains is supposed to have been very slow and gradual.
On the other hand, it is clear that igneous rock, already hard, had to become fluid in order to penetrate sedimentary rock or cover it.
It is not known what initiated this process, but it is asserted that it must have happened long before man appeared on the earth.
So when skulls of early man are found in late deposits, or skulls of modern man are found together with bones of extinct animals in early deposits, difficult problems are presented.
Occasionally, during Anglo American mining operations, a human skull is found in the middle of a mountain, under a thick cover of basalt and granite or 7000 meters deep in old ancient mining locations in Southern Africa.
Human remains and human artifacts of bone, polished stone, or pottery are found under great deposits of till and gravel, sometimes under as much as a hundred feet.
The origin of clay, sand, and gravel on igneous and sedimentary rock, offers a problem.
The theory of Ice Ages was put forth (1840) to explain this and other enigmatic phenomena.
As far north as Spitz-bergen, in the polar circle, at some time in the past, coral reefs were formed, which do not occur except in tropical regions; palms also grew on Spitz-bergen.
The continent of Antarctica, which today has not a single tree on it, must have been covered at one time by forests, since it has deep coal deposits.
As we see, the planet earth is full of secrets.
We have not come closer to solving the problem of the origin of the solar system by investigating the planet under our feet; on the contrary, we have found many other unsolved problems concerning the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Shall we be more fortunate if we try to understand the process that caused the changes on the globe in the most recent geological epoch, the time of the last glacial period, a period close to the time which is regarded as historical?
We already looked briefly at the Ice Ages and we have more questions than answers with that exercise.
Let us examine closely some past historical records for more added cerebral exercises on this subject.
The Greeks as well as the Carians and other peoples on the shores of the Aegean Sea told of a time when the sun was driven off its course and disappeared for an entire day, and the earth was burned and drowned.
The Greek legend says that the young Phaëthon, who claimed parentage of the sun, on that fatal day tried to drive the chariot of the sun.
Phaëthon was unable to make his way “against the whirling poles,” and “their swift axis” swept him away.
Phaëthon in Greek means “the blazing one.”
Many authors have dealt with the story of Phaëthon; the best known version is a creation of the Latin poet Ovid.
The chariot of the sun, driven by Phaëthon, moved “no longer in the same course as before.”
The horses “break loose from their course” and “rush aimlessly, knocking against the stars set deep in the sky and snatching the chariot along through uncharted ways.”
The constellations of the cold Bears tried to plunge into the forbidden sea, and the sun’s chariot roamed through unknown regions of the air.
It was “borne along just as a ship driven before the headlong blast, whose pilot has let the useless rudder go and abandoned the ship to the gods and prayers.”
The earth bursts into flame, the highest parts first, and splits into deep cracks, and its moisture is all dried up.
The meadows are burned to white ashes; the trees are consumed, green leaves and all, and the ripe grain furnishes fuel for its own destruction. ...
Great cities perish with their walls, and the vast conflagration reduces whole nations to ashes.
“The woods are ablaze with the mountains. ... Aetna is blazing boundlessly ... and twin-peaked Parnassus. ... Nor does its chilling clime save Scythia; Caucasus burns ... and the heaven-piercing Alps and cloud-capped Apennines.”
The scorched clouds belched forth smoke. Phaëthon sees the earth aflame. “He can no longer bear the ashes and whirling sparks, and is completely shrouded in the dense, hot smoke. In this pitchy darkness he cannot tell where he is or whither he is going.”
“It was then, as men think, that the peoples of Aethiopia became black-skinned, since the blood was drawn to the surface of their bodies by the heat.”
Then also Libya became a desert, for the heat dried up her moisture. ... The Don’s waters steam; Babylonian Euphrates burns; the Ganges, Phasis, Danube, Alpheus boil; Spercheos’ banks are aflame.
The golden sands of Tagus melt in the intense heat, and the swans ... are scorched. ...
The Nile fled in terror to the ends of the earth ... the seven mouths lie empty, filled with dust; seven broad channels, all without a stream.
The same mischance dries up the Thracian rivers, Hebrus and Strymon; also the rivers of the west, the Rhine, Rhone, Po and the Tiber. ... Great cracks yawn everywhere. ...
Even the sea shrinks up, and what was but now a great watery expanse is a dry plain of sand.
The mountains, which the deep sea had covered before, spring forth, and increase the number of the scattered Cyclades.
How could the poets have known that a change in the movement of the sun across the firmament must cause a world conflagration, blazing of volcanoes, boiling of rivers, disappearance of seas, birth of deserts, emergence of islands, if the sun never changed its harmonious journey from sunrise to sunset?
The disturbance in the movement of the sun was followed by a period as long as a day, when the sun did not appear at all.
Ovid continues: “If we are to believe report, one whole day went without the sun. But the burning world gave light.”
A prolonged night in one part of the world must be accompanied by a prolonged day in another part; in Ovid we see the phenomenon related in the Book of Joshua, but from another longitude.
This may stimulate surmise as to the geographical origin of the Indo-Iranian or Carian migrants to Greece.
The globe changed the inclination of its axis; latitudes changed, too.
Ovid ends the description of the world catastrophe contained in the story of Phaëthon: “Causing all things to shake with her mighty trembling, she [the earth] sank back a little lower than her wonted place.”
Plato recorded the story heard two generations before from Solon, the wise ruler of Athens.
Solon, on his visit to Egypt, questioned the priests, versed in the lore of antiquity, on early history.
He discovered that “neither he himself nor any other Greek knew anything at all, one might say, about such matters.”
Solon unfolded before the priests the tale of the deluge, the only ancient tradition he was aware of.
One of the priests, an old man, said: “There have been and there will be many and diverse destructions of mankind, of which the greatest are by fire and water, and lesser ones by countless other means.
For in truth the story that is told in your country as well as ours, how once upon a time Phaëthon, son of Helios, yoked his father’s chariot, and, because he was unable to drive it along the course taken by his father, burnt up all that was upon the earth and himself perished by a thunderbolt –that story, as it is told, has the fashion of a legend, but the truth of it lies in the occurrence of a shifting of the bodies in the heavens which move around the earth, and a destruction of the things on the earth by fierce fire, which recurs at long intervals.”
The Egyptian priest explained to Solon that in these catastrophes the literary works of many peoples and their learned men perished; for that reason the Greeks were still childish, as they no longer knew the true horrors of the past.
These words of the priest were only an introduction to a revelation of his knowledge about lands that were erased when Greece also and the entire world were visited with heavenly wrath.
He told the story of a mighty kingdom on a great island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean that submerged and sank forever into its waters.
The story narrated by Plato of the island of Atlantis that ruled Africa as far as the border of Egypt and Europe as far as Tuscany on the Apennine peninsula states that in one fatal night Atlantis was shattered by earthquakes and sank.
This story never ceased to occupy the imagination of the literati.
Strabo and Pliny thought that the story of Atlantis was an illusion of the elderly Plato.
However, to this day, the tradition, as revived by Plato, has not died.
Poets and novelists have exploited the story freely; scientists have done so with caution.
An incomplete catalogue of the literature on Atlantis in 1926 included 1,700 titles.
Although Plato said clearly that Atlantis was situated behind the Pillars of Hercules (Gibraltar), in the Atlantic Ocean, as is also indicated by the name of the island, travelers and other guessers have placed Atlantis in all parts of the world, even on dry land, as, for example, in Tunisia, Palestine, and South America. Ceylon, Newfoundland, and Spitz-bergen have also been considered.
This was due to the fact that traditions of inundations and submersion of islands exist in all parts of the world.
Plato set down what Solon had heard in Egypt from the learned priest. “The [Atlantic] ocean there was at that time navigable; for in front of the mouth which you Greeks call, as you say, ‘the Pillars of Heracles’ [Hercules], there lay an island which was larger than Libya and Asia [Asia Minor] together; and it was possible for the travellers of that time to cross from it to the other islands, and from the islands to the whole of the continent over against them which encompasses that veritable ocean. ...
Yonder is a real ocean, and the land surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and truest sense, a continent.
Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, a great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island, and over many other islands also and parts of the continent; and, moreover, of the lands here within the Straits they ruled over Libya as far as Egypt, and over Europe as far as Tuscany.”
In the nineteenth century ships sailed the Atlantic Ocean to explore its bed in search of Atlantis, and before the Second World War scientific societies existed for the sole purpose of exploring the problem of the sunken island.
Much speculation was offered, not only on the whereabouts of Atlantis, but also on the cultural achievements of its inhabitants.
Plato, in another work of his (Critias), wrote a political treatise, and, as no real place in the world could have been the scene of his utopia, he chose for that purpose the sunken island.
Modern scholars, finding some affinity between American, Egyptian, and Phoenician cultures, think that Atlantis may have been the intermediary link.
There is much probability in these speculations; if they are justified, Crete, a maritime base of Carian navigators, may disclose some information about Atlantis as soon as the Cretan scripts are satisfactorily deciphered.
One point in Plato’s story about the submersion of Atlantis requires some updating with new information.
Plato said that Solon told the story to Critias the elder, and that the young Critias, Plato’s friend, heard it from his grandfather when he was a ten-year-old boy.
Critias the younger remembered having been told that the catastrophe which befell Atlantis happened 9,000 years before.
One ponders if there is one zero too many here based on the older data.
However, we do now know that there was an Atlantean civilization 9,000 years before Solon that was wiped out by consequences of the Geminga SuperNova shockwave event.
This 9000 year timeline is thus correct and was the time that Atlantis the island continent sank, but it took 300 years, not a single day.
The destruction of Atlantis was slow, the destruction of Poseida was instant.
The survivors of Atlantis started a new city in Mauritania called Poseida and much confusion over this city in Mauritania and Atlantis Major have occurred as records did not survive the Island continent of the Atlantis era.
Poseida in Mauritania was indeed destroyed completely by Venus in a single day and a follow up event 52 years later seems to have dragged the mud and sand back the other way to the first event.
Regardless of the twin 1500 BC tidal catastrophe events separated by 52 years, the survivors of Poseida in Mauritania spawned the Sumerian, Phoenician and Egyptian civilizations.
Whatever the source of the error, the most probable date of the sinking of Atlantis would be 9000 years ago and Poseida in Mauritania was wiped out in the middle of the second millenium, 900 years before Solon, when the earth twice suffered great catastrophes as a result of “the shifting of the heavenly bodies.”
These words of Plato received the least attention, though they deserved the greatest.
The destruction of Atlantis is described by Plato as he heard it from his source: “At a later time there occurred portentous earthquakes and floods, and one grievous day and night befell them, when the whole body of your [Greek] warriors was swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner was swallowed up by the sea and vanished; wherefore also the ocean at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, being blocked up by the shoal mud which the island created as it settled down.”
At the time when Atlantis perished in the ocean, the people of Greece were destroyed: the catastrophe was ubiquitous.
As if recalling what had happened, the Psalmist wrote: “Destructions are come to a perpetual end: and thou hast destroyed cities, their memorial is perished with them.”
He prayed also: “God is our refuge and strength ... therefore will not we fear, though the earth be removed and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea; though the waters thereof roar and be troubled.”
The floods of Deucalion and of Ogyges
The history of Greece knows two great natural catastrophes: the floods of Deucalion and of Ogyges.
One of them, usually that of Deucalion, is described by Greek authors as having been simultaneous with the conflagration of Phaëthon.
The floods of Deucalion and Ogyges brought overwhelming destruction to the mainland of Greece and to the islands around and caused changes in the geographical profile of the area.
That of Deucalion was most devastating: water covered the land and annihilated the population.
According to the legend, only two persons –Deucalion and his wife –remained alive.
This last detail must not be taken more literally than similar statements found in descriptions of great catastrophes all around the world; for example, two daughters of Lot, who hid with him in a cave after the catastrophe of Sodom and Gomorrah, believed that they and their father were the only survivors in the land.
The chronologists among the Fathers of the Church found material for assuming that one of the two catastrophes, the flood of Deucalion or that of Ogyges, had been contemporaneous with the Exodus. Julius Africanus wrote: “We affirm that Ogygus [Ogyges] from whom the first flood [in Attica] derived its name, and who was saved when many perished, lived at the time of the Exodus of the people from Egypt along with Moses.“
He further expressed his belief in the coincidence of the catastrophe of Ogyges and the one that occurred in Egypt in the days of the Exodus in the following words: “The Passover and the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt took place, and also in Attica the flood of Ogygus.
And that is according to reason.
For when the Egyptians were being smitten in the anger of God with hail and storms, it was only to be expected that certain parts of the earth should suffer with them.”
Eusebius placed the Flood of Deucalion and the conflagration of Phaëthon in the fifty-second year of Moses’ life.
Augustine also synchronized the Flood of Deucalion with the time of Moses; he assumed that the Flood of Ogyges took place earlier. A chronologist of the seventh century (Isidore, bishop of Seville) dated the Flood of Deucalion in the time of Moses; chronologists of the seventeenth century likewise calculated that the Flood of Deucalion took place in the time of Moses, close to but not simultaneous with the Exodus.
It would seem to be more probable that, if the catastrophes occurred one shortly after the other, the catastrophe of Ogyges took place after that of Deucalion which practically destroyed the land, depopulated it, and erased every memory of what had happened up to that time.
In the words of Plato, who quoted the Egyptian priest speaking to Solon, the catastrophes must have escaped the notice of the future generations because, as a result of the devastation, “for many generations the survivors died with no power to express themselves in writing.” The memory of the catastrophe of Ogyges would have vanished in the catastrophe of Deucalion if Ogyges had preceded Deucalion.
Apparently, the truth is with those who placed the catastrophe of Deucalion in the days of Exodus; but those who reckoned that Ogyges was a contemporary of Moses were also correct, except that Moses did not live until the Flood of Ogyges –it took place in the days of Joshua.
In commemoration of the Deucalion flood, the people of Athens observed a feast in the month of Anthesterion, which is a spring month; the feast was called Anthesteria.
On the thirteenth of the month, the main day of the feast, honey and flour were poured into a fissure in the earth as a sacrifice.
The date of this ceremony –the thirteenth day of Anthesterion in the spring –is revealing.
It was on the thirteenth day of the spring month (Aviv) that the great planetary contact occurred which preceded by a few hours the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt.
The offering of honey and flour as the main ceremony of the feast is also revealing if we recollect that manna, or heavenly corn, tasting like honey, fell on the earth after the contact of the earth with a celestial body.
As to the provenance of the name Deucalion, scholars admit that it is not known.
For the name and the person of Ogyges we have some concrete information.
Although Ogyges was a king, the Greek annalists who wrote of the “flood of Ogyges” as one of the outstanding events of the past of their country, at the same time did not know anything about a king of that name in Greece.
Who was Ogyges?
We can solve this problem.
When the Israelites under Moses approached the border of Moab, Balaam in his blessing of Israel used these words: “His king shall be higher than Agag [Agog].” Agog must have been the most important king of that time in the area around the eastern Mediterranean.
In our reconstruction of ancient history, we shall put forward proofs that the Amalekite king, Agog I, was identical with the Hyksos king whose name the Egyptologists tentatively read Apop I, and who, a few decades after the invasion of Egypt by the Amu (Hyksos), laid the foundation of Thebes, the future capital of the New Kingdom in Egypt.
In conformity with this assertion, we can point to the fact that Greek tradition, which does not know of any activities of King Ogyges in Attica, occasionally places the domicile of Ogyges in Egyptian Thebes, and Aeschylus calls Thebes of Egypt “the Ogygian Thebes,” to differentiate it from the Greek Thebes in Boeotia.
Ogyges is also credited with founding Thebes in Egypt. Agog was a contemporary of the aging Moses; he was a ruler who, in his time, had no equal in the region bordering the eastern Mediterranean; the catastrophe in the time of Joshua, successor to Moses, was called by his, Agog’s, name.
The assertion of Solinus, the author of Polyhistor, that the flood of Ogyges was followed by a night of nine months’ duration does not necessarily signify a confusion with the darkness that ensued after the cataclysm of the Exodus; as the causes were similar, similar results must have followed.
The eruption of thousands of volcanoes would suffice to produce this darkness, of a shorter duration than that which followed the cataclysm of the Exodus.
Thus, the Greek traditions of the floods of Ogyges and Deucalion contain elements which, though interchanged, can be traced to two great upheavals in the middle of the second millennium before the present era.
The Mayan 52 year Period thang
The works of Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxochitl, the early Mexican scholar (circa 1568 –1648), who was able to read old Mexican texts, preserve the ancient tradition according to which the multiple of fifty-two-year periods played an important role in the recurrence of world catastrophes.
He asserts also that only fifty-two years elapsed between two great catastrophes, each of which terminated a world age.
As we have already pointed out, the Israelite tradition counts forty years of wandering in the desert; between the time when the Israelites left the desert and started the difficult task of the conquest, and the time of the battle at Beth-horon twelve years may well have passed.
The conquest of Canaan took fourteen years, and the entire duration of Joshua’s leadership amounted to twenty-eight years.
Now there exists a remarkable fact: the natives of pre-Columbian Mexico expected a new catastrophe at the end of every period of fifty-two years and congregated to await the event. “When the night of this ceremony arrived, all the people were seized with fear and waited in anxiety for what might take place.” They were afraid that “it would be the end of the human race and that the darkness of the night may become permanent: the sun may not rise anymore.”
They watched for the appearance of the planet Venus, and when, on the feared day, no catastrophe occurred, the people of Maya rejoiced.
They brought human sacrifices and offered the hearts of prisoners whose chests they opened with knives of flint.
On that night, when the fifty-two-year period ended, a great bonfire announced to the fearful crowds that a new period of grace had been granted and a new Venus cycle started.
The period of fifty-two years, regarded by the ancient Mexicans as the interval between two world catastrophes, was definitely related by them to the planet Venus; and this period of Venus was observed by both the Mayas and the Aztecs.
The old Mexican custom of sacrificing to the Morning Star survived in human sacrifices by the Skidi Pawnee of Nebraska in years when the Morning Star “appeared especially bright, or in years when there was a comet in the sky.”
What had Venus to do with the catastrophes that brought the world to the brink of destruction?
Here is a question that will carry us very far, indeed.
We shall postpone only for a short while giving the answer to the question just posed.
First we should like to find an explanation for the institution of the jubilee year of the Israelite's.
Every seventh year, according to the law, was a sabbatical year during which the land had to be left fallow and Jewish slaves set free.
The fiftieth year was a jubilee year, when the land not only had to he left fallow, but had to be returned to its original proprietors.
According to the law, one could not convey his land for ever; the deed of sale was but a lease for whatever number of years remained until the jubilee year.
The year was proclaimed by the blowing of horns on the Day of Atonement. “In the Day of Atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land. And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubilee unto you, and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.”
Ever since, exegetes have labored over the biblical statement that the jubilee year was to be observed every fiftieth year. The seventh sabbatical year is the forty-ninth year: “And the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years. … And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year.”
To leave the land fallow for two consecutive years was too great a demand and cannot be explained by the need of the soil under cultivation for rest.
The festival of the jubilee, with the return of land to its original owners and the release of slaves, bears the character of an atonement, and its proclamation on the Day of Atonement emphasizes this still further.
Was there any special reason why fear returned every fifty years?
The Jubilee of the Mayas must have had a genesis similar to that of the jubilee of the Israelite's.
The difference lies in the human character of the festival of the Jews and its inhuman character among the Mayas; but with both peoples it was a year of atonement, repeating itself every fiftieth year in the one case and every fifty-second year in the other.
Comets do not return at exact periods because of perturbations caused by larger planets.
The Mayas expected the return of a catastrophe every fifty-second year because that was the interval between two cataclysms that had taken place.
It may be that the comet was actually seen again at such intervals. The Jews fasted and prepared themselves for the Day of Judgment on the earliest possible date of its return; the Mayas had their festival when the dreaded time had passed without harm.
On the Day of Atonement the Israelite's used to send a scapegoat to “Azazel” in the desert.
It was a ceremony of propitiation of Satan.
In Egypt the goat was an animal dedicated to Seth-Typhon.
Azazel was a fallen star or Lucifer.
It was also called Azzael, Azza, or Uzza.
According to the rabbinical legend, Uzza was the star angel of Egypt: it was thrown into the Red Sea when the Israelites made their passage.
The Arab name of the planet Venus is al-Uzza.
Arabs used to bring human sacrifices to al-Uzza; Mohammed, too, in his early days, worshiped it, and even today the Arabs seek its help.
On the day on which the jubilee year was proclaimed, the Israelites dispatched a placating offering of a scapegoat to Lucifer.
But what did Venus have to do with the Jubilee and the atonement?
Venus the Newborn
A planet turns and revolves on a quite circular orbit around a greater body, the sun; it makes contact with another body, a comet, that travels on a stretched out ellipse.
The planet slips from its axis, runs in disorder off its orbit, wanders rather erratically, and in the end is freed from the embrace of the comet.
The body on the long ellipse experiences similar disturbances.
Drawn off its path, it glides to some new orbit; its long train of gaseous substances and stones is torn away by the sun or by the planet, or runs away and revolves as a smaller comet along its own ellipse; a part of the tail is retained by the parent comet on its new orbit.
Ancient Mexican records give the order of the occurrences.
The sun was attacked by Quetzal-cohuatl; after the disappearance of this serpent-shaped heavenly body, the sun refused to shine, and during four days the world was deprived of its light; a great many people died at that time.
Thereafter, the snakelike body transformed itself into a great star.
The star retained the name of Quetzal-cohuatl [Quetzal-coatl].
This great and brilliant star appeared for the first time in the east.
Quetzal-cohuatl is the well-known name of the planet Venus.
Thus we read that “the sun refused to show itself and during four days the world was deprived of light. Then a great star ... appeared; it was given the name Quetzal-cohuatl ... the sky, to show its anger ... caused to perish a great number of people who died of famine and pestilence.”
The sequence of seasons and the duration of days and nights became disarranged. “It was then ... that the people [of Mexico] regulated anew the reckoning of days, nights, and hours, according to the difference in time.”
“It is a remarkable thing, moreover, that time is measured from the moment of its [Morning Star’s] appearance. ...
Tlahuizcalpanteuctli or the Morning Star appeared for the first time following the convulsions of the earth overwhelmed by a deluge.” It looked like a monstrous serpent. “This serpent is adorned with feathers: that is why it is called Quetzalcohuatl, Gukumatz or Kukulcan.
Just as the world is about to emerge from the chaos of the great catastrophe, it is seen to appear.” The feather arrangement of Quetzal-cohuatl “represented flames of fire.”
Again, the old texts speak “of the change that took place, at the moment of the great catastrophe of the deluge, in the condition of many constellations, principal among them being precisely Tlahuizcalpanteuctli or the star of Venus.”
The cataclysm, accompanied by a prolonged darkness, appears to have been that of the days of the Exodus, when a tempest of cinders darkened the world disturbed in its rotation.
Some of the references may allude to the subsequent catastrophe of the time of the conquest by Joshua, when the sun remained for more than a day in the sky of the old world.
Since it was the same comet that on both occasions made contact with the earth, and at each of the contacts the comet changed its own orbit, the relevant question is not, “On which occasion did the comet change its orbit?” but first of all, “Which comet changed to a planet?” or “Which planet was a comet in historical times?”
The transformation of the comet into a planet began on contact with the earth in the middle of the second millennium before the present era and was carried a step further one jubilee period later.
After the dramatic events of the time of Exodus, the earth was shrouded in dense clouds for decades, and observation of stars was not possible; after the second contact, Venus, the new and splendid member of the solar family, was seen moving along its orbit.
It was in the days of Joshua, a time designation meaningful to the reader of the sixth book of the Scriptures; but for the ancients it was “the time of Agog.” As we explained above, he was the king by whose name the cataclysm (the Deluge of Ogyges) was known, and who, according to Greek tradition, laid the foundations of Thebes in Egypt.
In The City of God by Augustine it is written: “From the book of Marcus Varro, entitled Of the Race of the Roman People, we cite word for word the following instance: ‘There occurred a remarkable celestial portent; for Castor records that in the brilliant star Venus, called ‘Vesperugo’ by Plautus and ‘the lovely Hesperus’ by Homer, there occurred so strange a prodigy, that it changed its color, size, form, course, which never happened before nor since.
Adrastus of Cyzicus, and Dion of Naples, famous mathematicians, said that this occurred in the reign of Ogyges.’”
The Fathers of the Church considered Ogyges a contemporary of Moses. Agog, mentioned in the blessing of Balaam, was the king Ogyges.
The upheaval that took place in the days of Joshua and Agog, the deluge that occurred in the days of Ogyges, the metamorphosis of Venus in the days of Ogyges, the star Venus which appeared in the sky of Mexico after a protracted night and a great catastrophe –all these occurrences are related.
Augustine went on to make a curious comment on the transformation of Venus: “Certainly that phenomenon disturbed the canons of the astronomers ... so as to take upon them to affirm that this which happened to the Morning Star (Venus) never happened before nor since.
We read in the divine books however that even the sun itself stood still when a holy man, Joshua the son of Nun, had begged this from God.”
Augustine had no inkling that Castor, as quoted by Varro, and the Book of Jasher, as quoted in the Book of Joshua, refer to the same occurrence.
Are Hebrew sources silent on the birth of a new star in the days of Joshua?
They are not.
It is written in a Samaritan chronicle that during the invasion of Palestine by the Israelites under Joshua, a new star was born in the east: “A star arose out of the east against which all magic is vain.”
Chinese chronicles record that “a brilliant star appeared in the days of Yahu [Yahou].”
The Blazing Star
Plato, citing the Egyptian priest, said that the world conflagration associated with Phaëthon was caused by a shifting of bodies in the sky which move around the earth.
As we have reason to assume that it was the comet Venus that, after two contacts with the earth, eventually became a planet, we shall do well to inquire: Did Phaëthon turn into the Morning Star?
Phaëthon, which means “the blazing star,” became the Morning Star.
The earliest writer who refers to the transformation of Phaëthon into a planet is Hesiod.
This transformation is related by Hyginus in his Astronomy, where he tells how Phaëthon, that caused the conflagration of the world, was struck by a thunderbolt of Jupiter and was placed by the sun among the stars (planets).
It was the general belief that Phaëthon changed into the Morning Star.
On the island of Crete, “Atymnios” was the name of the unlucky driver of the sun’s chariot; he was worshiped as the Evening Star, which is the same as the Morning Star.
The birth of the Morning Star, or the transformation of a legendary person (Istehar, Phaëthon, Quetzal-cohuatl) into the Morning Star was a widespread motif in the folklore of the oriental and occidental peoples.
The Tahitian tradition of the birth of the Morning Star is narrated on the Society Island in the Pacific; the Mangaian legend says that with the birth of a new star, the earth was battered by countless fragments.
The Buriats, Kirghiz, and Yakuts of Siberia, and the Eskimos of North America also tell of the birth of the planet Venus.
A blazing star disrupted the visible movement of the sun, caused a world conflagration, and became the Morning-Evening Star.
This may be found not only in the legends and traditions, but also in astronomical books of the ancient peoples of both hemispheres.
The four Visible Planets
By asserting that the planet Venus was born in the first half of the second millennium, we assume also that in the third millennium only four planets could have been seen from terra, and that in astronomical charts of this early period the planet Venus cannot be found.
In an ancient Hindu table of planets, attributed to the year -3102 Venus alone among the visible planets is absent.
The Brahmans of the early period did not know the five planet system, and only in a later (“ middle”) period did the Brahmans speak of five planets.
Babylonian astronomy, too, had a four-planet system.
In ancient prayers the planets Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and Mercury are invoked often and the planet Venus is conspicuous in its absence and one thus one speaks of “the four-planet system of the ancient astronomers of Babylonia.”
These four-planet systems and the inability of the ancient Hindus and Babylonians to see Venus in the sky, even though it is more visible than the other planets are most puzzling unless Venus was not among the visible planets.
On a later date “the planet Venus receives the appellative: ‘The great star that joins the great stars.’
The great stars are, of course, the four planets Mercury, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn ... and Venus joins them as the fifth planet.”
Apollonius Rhodius refers to a time “when not all the orbs were yet in the heavens.”
One of the Planets are a Comet
Democritus (circa -460 to circa -370), a contemporary of Plato and one of the great scholars of antiquity, is accused by the moderns of not having understood the planetary character of Venus.
Plutarch quotes him as speaking of Venus as if it were not one of the planets.
But apparently the author of the treatises on geometry, optics, and astronomy, no longer extant, knew more about Venus than his critics think.
From quotations which have survived in other authors, we know that Democritus built a theory of the creation and destruction of worlds which sounds like the modern planetesimal theory without its shortcomings.
He wrote: “The worlds are unequally distributed in space; here there are more, there fewer; some are waxing, some are in their prime, some waning: coming into being in one part of the universe, ceasing in another part. The cause of their perishing is collision with one another.”
He knew that “the planets are at unequal distances from us” and that there are more planets than we are able to discover with our eyes.
Aristotle quotes the opinion of Democritus: “Stars have been seen when comets dissolve.” Among the early Greek scholars, Pythagoras of the sixth century is generally credited with having had access to some secret science.
His pupils, and their pupils, the so-called Pythagoreans, were cautious not to disclose their science to anyone who did not belong to their circle.
Aristotle wrote of their interpretation of the nature of comets: “Some of the Italians called Pythagoreans say that the comet is one of the planets, but that it appears at great intervals of time and only rises a little above the horizon.
This is the case with Mercury too; because it only rises a little above the horizon it often fails to be seen and consequently appears at great intervals of time.”
This is a confused presentation of a theory; but it is possible to trace the truth in the Pythagorean teaching, which was not understood by Aristotle.
A comet is a planet which returns at long intervals.
One of the planets, which rises only a little above the horizon, was still regarded by the Pythagoreans of the fourth century as a comet.
With the knowledge obtained from other sources, it is easy to guess that by “one of the planets” is meant Venus; only Mercury and Venus rise a little above the horizon.
Aristotle disagreed with the Pythagorean scholars who considered one of the five planets to be a comet.
“These views involve impossibilities. ... This is the case, first, with those who say that the comet is one of the planets ... more comets than one have often appeared simultaneously ... as a matter of fact, no planet has been observed besides the five. And all of them are often visible above the horizon together at the same time. Further, comets are often found to appear, as well when all the planets are visible as when some are not.”
With these words, Aristotle, who did not learn the secrets of the Pythagoreans directly, tried to refute their teaching by arguing that all five planets are in their places when a comet appears, as if the Pythagoreans thought that all comets were one and the same planet leaving its usual path at certain times.
But the Pythagoreans did not think that one planet represents all comets.
According to Plutarch, they taught that each of the comets has its own orbit and period of revolution.
Hence the Pythagoreans apparently knew that the comet which is “one of the planets” is Venus.
During the centuries when Venus was a comet, it obviously had a tail.
The early traditions of the peoples of Mexico, written down in pre-Columbian days, relate that Venus smoked.
“The star that smoked –la estrella que humeava –was Sitlae choloha, which the Spaniards call Venus.”
“Now, I ask,” says Alexander Humboldt, “what optical illusion could give Venus the appearance of a star throwing out smoke?”
Sahagun, the sixteenth century Spanish authority on Mexico, wrote that the Mexicans called a comet “a star that smoked.”
It may thus be concluded that since the Mexicans called Venus “a star that smoked,” they considered it a comet. It is also said in the Vedas that the star Venus looks like fire with smoke.
Apparently, the star had a tail, dark in the daytime and luminous at night. In very concrete form this luminous tail, which Venus had in earlier centuries, is mentioned in the Talmud, in the Tractate Shabbat: “Fire is hanging down from the planet Venus.”
This phenomenon was described by the Chaldeans. The planet Venus “was said to have a beard.”
This same technical expression (“ beard”) is used in modern astronomy in the description of comets.
These parallels in observations made in the valley of the Ganges, on the shores of the Euphrates, and on the coast of the Mexican Gulf prove their objectivity.
The question must then be put, not in the form: What was the illusion of the ancient Toltecs and Mayas? But: What was the phenomenon and what was its cause?
A train, large enough to be visible from the earth and giving the impression of smoke and fire, hung from the planet Venus.
Venus, with its glowing train, was a very brilliant body; it is therefore not strange that the Chaldeans described it as a “bright torch of heaven,” also as a “diamond that illuminates like the sun,” and compared its light with the light of the rising sun.
At present, the light of Venus is less than one millionth of the light of the sun. “A stupendous prodigy in the sky,” the Chaldeans called it.
The Hebrews similarly described the planet: “The brilliant light of Venus blazes from one end of the cosmos to the other end.”
The Chinese astronomical text from Soochow refers to the past when “Venus was visible in full daylight and, while moving across the sky, rivaled the sun in brightness.”
As late as the seventh century, Assurbanipal wrote about Venus (Ishtar) “who is clothed with fire and bears aloft a crown of awful splendor.”
The Egyptians under Seti thus described Venus (Sekhmet): “A circling star which scatters its flame in fire ... a flame of fire in her tempest.”
Possessing a tail and moving on a not yet circular orbit, Venus was more of a comet than a planet, and was called a “smoking star” or a comet by the Mexicans. They also called it by the name of “Tzontemocque”, or “the mane.”
The Arabs called Ishtar (Venus) by the name “Zebbaj” or “one with hair,” as did the Babylonians.
“Sometimes there are hairs attached to the planets,” wrote Pliny; an old description of Venus must have served as a basis for his assertion.
Hair or “coma” is a characteristic of comets, and in fact “comet” is derived from the Greek word for “hair.”
The Peruvian name “Chaska” (“ wavy-haired”) is still the name for Venus, though at present the Morning Star is definitely a planet and has no tail attached to it.
The coma of Venus changed its form with the position of the planet.
When the planet Venus approaches the earth now, it is only partly illuminated, a portion of the disc being in shadow; it has phases like the moon.
At this time, being closer to the earth, it is most brilliant.
When Venus had a coma, the horns of its crescent must have been extended by the illuminated portions of the coma.
It thus had two long appendages and looked like a bull’s head. Sanchoniathon says that Astarte (Venus) had a bull’s head.
The planet was even called “Ashteroth-Karnaim”, or “Astarte of the Horns”, a name given to a city in Canaan in honor of this deity.
The golden calf worshiped by Aaron and the people at the foot of Sinai was the image of the star.
Rabbinical authorities say that “the devotion of Israel to this worship on the bull is in part explained by the circumstance that, while passing through the Red Sea, they beheld the celestial Throne, and most distinctly of the four creatures about the Throne, they saw the ox.”
The likeness of a calf was placed by Jeroboam in Dan, the great temple of the Northern Kingdom.
Tistrya of the Zend-Avesta, the star that attacks the planets, “the bright and glorious Tistrya mingles his shape with light moving in the shape of a golden-horned bull.”
The Egyptians similarly pictured the planet and worshiped it in the effigy of a bull.
The cult of a bull sprang up also in Mycenaean Greece.
A golden cow head with a star on its brow was found in Mycenae, on the Greek mainland.
The people of faraway Samoa, primitive tribes that depend on oral tradition as they have no art of writing, repeat to this day: “The planet Venus became wild and horns grew out of her head.”
Examples and references could be multiplied ad libitum.
The astronomical texts of the Babylonians describe the horns of the planet Venus.
Sometimes one of the two horns became more prominent.
Because the astronomical works of antiquity have so much to say about the horns of Venus, modern scholars have asked themselves whether the Babylonians could have seen the phases of Venus, which cannot now be distinguished with the naked eye; Galileo saw them for the first time in modern history when he used his telescope.
The long horns of Venus could have been seen without the aid of a telescopic lens.
The horns were the illuminated portions of the coma of Venus, which stretched toward the earth.
These horns could also have extended toward the sun as Venus approached the solar orb, since comets were repeatedly observed with projections in the direction of the sun, while the tails of the comets are regularly directed away from the sun.
When Venus approached close to one of the planets, its horns grew longer: this is the phenomenon the astrologers of Babylon observed and described when Venus neared Mars.
In every country of the ancient world we can trace cosmological myths of the birth of the planet Venus. If we look for the god or goddess who represents the planet Venus, we must inquire which among the gods or goddesses did not exist from the beginning, but was born into the family.
The mythologies of all peoples concern themselves with the birth only of Venus, not with that of Jupiter, Mars, or Saturn.
Jupiter is described as heir to Saturn, but his birth is not a mythological subject.
Horus of the Egyptians and Vishnu, born of Shiva, of the Hindus, were such newborn deities.
Horus battled in the sky with the monster-serpent Seth; so did Vishnu.
In Greece the goddess who suddenly appeared in the sky was Pallas Athene.
She sprang from the head of Zeus-Jupiter.
In another legend she was the daughter of a monster, Pallas-Typhon, who attacked her and whom she battled and killed.
The slaying of the monster by a planet-god is the way in which the people's perceived the convulsion of the pillar of smoke when the earth and the comet Venus disturbed each other in their orbits, and the head of the comet and its tail leaped against each other in violent electrical discharges.
The birth of the planet Athene is sung in the Homeric hymn dedicated to her, “the glorious goddess, virgin, Tritogeneia.” When she was born, the vault of the sky –the great Olympus –“began to reel horribly,” “earth round about cried fearfully,” “the sea was moved and tossed with dark waves, while foam burst forth suddenly,” and the sun stopped for “a long while.”
The Greek text speaks of “purple waves” and of “the sea [that] rises up like a wall,” and the sun stopping in its course.
Aristocles said that Zeus hid the unborn Athene in a cloud and then split it open with lightning, which is the mythological way to describe the appearance of a celestial body from the pillar of cloud.
Athene, or Latin Minerva, is called “Tritogeneia” (or “Tritonia”) after the Lake Triton.
This lake disappeared in a catastrophe in Africa when it broke into the ocean, leaving the desert of Sahara behind it, a catastrophe connected with the birth of Athene.
Diodorus, referring to undisclosed older authorities, says that Lake Triton in Africa “disappeared from sight in the course of an earthquake, when those parts of it which lay toward the ocean were torn asunder.”
This account implies that a great lake or marsh in Africa, separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a mountainous barrier, disappeared when the barrier was broken or lowered in a catastrophe.
Ovid says that Libya became a desert in consequence of Phaëthon’s conflagration. In the Iliad it is said that Pallas Athene “darted down to earth a gleaming star” with sparks springing from it; it darted as a star “sent by Jupiter to be a portent for seamen or for a wide host of warriors, a gleaming star.”
Athene’s counterpart in the Assyro-Babylonian pantheon is Astarte (Ishtar) who shatters mountains, “bright torch of heaven” at whose appearance “heaven and earth quake,” who causes darkness and appears in a hurricane.
Like Astarte (Ashteroth-Karnaim), Athene was pictured with horns. “Athena, daughter of Zeus … upon her head she set the helmet with two horns,” said Homer.
Pallas Athene is identified with Astarte (Ishtar) or the planet Venus of the Babylonians.
Anaitis of the Iranians, too, is identified as Pallas Athene and as the planet Venus.
Plutarch identified Minerva of the Romans or Athene of the Greeks with Isis of the Egyptians, and Pliny identified the planet Venus with Isis.
It is necessary to recall this here because it is generally supposed that the Greeks had no deity of importance who personified the planet Venus and that, on the other hand, they “did not find even a star in which to place” Athene.
Modern books on the mythology of the Greeks repeat today what Cicero wrote: “Venus, called in Greek ‘Phosphorus’ and in Latin ‘Lucifer’ when it preceded the sun, but when it follows it ‘Hesperos’.”
Phosphorus does not play any role on Olympus but following Cicero in his description of the planets, we read also of “the planet called Saturn, the Greek name of which is ‘Phaenon’,” though we know a more common name, “Cronus”, by which the Greeks called the planet Saturn.
Cicero gives the Greek names of other planets which are not the common ones.
It is therefore entirely wrong to think that Phosphorus and Hesperos are the chief or only names of the planet Venus in Greek.
Athene, in whose honor the city of Athens was named, was the planet Venus.
Next to Zeus she was the most honored deity of the Greeks. The name “Athene” in Greek, according to Manetho, “is indication of self-originated movement.”
He wrote of the name “Athene” as meaning, “I came from myself.”
Cicero, speaking of Venus, explained the origin of the name thus: “Venus was so named by our countrymen as the goddess who ‘comes’ [venire] to all things.”
The name “Vishnu” signifies “pervader,” from the Sanskrit “vish”, to “enter” or “pervade”.
The birth of Athene was assigned to the middle of the second millennium.
Augustine wrote: “Minerva [Athene] is reported to have appeared... in the times of Ogyges.” This statement is found in The City of God, the book containing the quotation from Varro that the planet Venus changed its course and form in the time of Ogyges.
Augustine also synchronized Joshua with the time of Minerva’s activities.
The cover of carbonigenous clouds in which the earth was enveloped by the comet is the “robe ambrosial” wrought by Athene for Hera (Earth).
The source of ambrosia was closely connected with Athene.
The origin of Athene as a comet is implied in her epithet Pallas which, as is commonly known, is synonymous with Typhon: Typhon, as Pliny said, was a comet.
The bull and the cow, the goat and the serpent, were animals dedicated to Athene.
“The goat being usually tabooed but chosen as an exceptional victim for her,” the animal was annually sacrificed on the Acropolis of Athens.
With the Israelites the goat was the victim for Azazel, or Lucifer.
In the Babylonian calendar “the nineteenth day of all months is marked ‘day of wrath’ of goddess Gula (Ishtar).
No work was done.
Weeping and lamentation filled the land. ...
Any explanation of ‘dies irae’ of Babylonia must be sought in some myth concerning the nineteenth of the first month.
Why should the nineteenth day after the moon of the spring equinox be a day of wrath? ...
It corresponds to the quinquatrus of the Roman farmer’s calendar, the nineteenth of March, five days after the full moon.
Ovid says that Minerva was born on that day, she being the Pallas Athene of the Greeks.”
The nineteenth of March was Minerva’s day.
The first appearance of Athene-Minerva took place on the day the Israelites crossed the Red Sea.
The night between the thirteenth and the fourteenth days of the first month after the vernal equinox was the night of the great earthshock; six days later, on the last day of Passover week, according to the Hebrew tradition, the waters were heaped up like mountains and the fugitives crossed on the dry bed of the sea.
The birth of Pallas Athene or her first visit to earth was the cause of a cosmic disturbance, and the memory of that catastrophe was “a day of wrath in all the calendars of ancient Chaldea.”
The Zeus Angle
If there was a problem in this research which caused prolonged deliberation on the part of Immanuel Velikovsky, it was the question: Was it the planet Jupiter or Venus that caused the catastrophe of the time of Exodus?
Some ancient mythological sources point to Venus, other sources point to Jupiter.
In one group of legends Jupiter (Zeus) is the protagonist of the drama: he leaves his place in the sky, rushes to battle Typhon, and strikes him with thunderbolts.
Other legends and historical sources, too, which we have quoted all over this blog indicate that it was the planet Venus, or Pallas Athene of the Greeks.
Athene killed her father, Typhon-Pallas, the celestial monster, and the description of this battle is not different from that of the battle in which Zeus killed Typhon.
Under the weight of many arguments, Velikovsky came to the conclusion –about which he no longer harbored any doubts –that it was the planet Venus, at the time still a comet, that caused the catastrophe of the days of Exodus.
Then why do a part of the legends tie up this event with Jupiter?
The cause of this duality in the mythological handling of an historical event lies in the fact that the ancients themselves did not know for certain which of the planets had caused the destruction.
Some saw the pillar of cloud -Typhon defeated by Jupiter, the ball of fire that emerged from the pillar and battled with it.
Others interpreted the globe as a body different from Jupiter.
The Greek authors described the birth of Athene (planet Venus), saying she sprang from the head of Jupiter. “And mighty Olympus trembled fearfully ... and the earth around shrieked fearfully, and the sea was stirred, troubled with its purple waves.”
One or two authors even thought that Athene was born of Cronus.
The consensus of ancient authors makes Athene-Venus the offspring of Jupiter: she sprang from his head, and this birth was accompanied by great disturbances in the celestial and terrestrial spheres.
The comet rushed toward the earth, and it could not be very well distinguished whether the planet Jupiter or its offspring was approaching.
We divulge here , that at an earlier time, Jupiter had already caused havoc in the planetary family, the earth included, and it was therefore only natural to see in the approaching body the planet Jupiter.
We referred in the introductory part of this blog to the modern theory which ascribes the birth of the terrestrial planets to the process of expulsion by larger ones.
This appears to be what is going on here in the case of Venus.
The other modern theory, which ascribes the origin of comets of short period to expulsion by large planets, is also correct: Venus was expelled as a comet and then changed to a planet after contact with a number of members of the solar system.
Venus, being an offspring of Jupiter bore all the characteristics known to men from early cataclysmic encounters.
When a ball of fire tore the pillar of cloud and pelted the pillar with thunderbolts, the imagination of the people saw in this the planet-god Jupiter-Marduk rushing to save the earth by killing the serpent-monster Typhon-Tiamat.
It is not strange, therefore, that, in places as remote from Greece as the islands of Polynesia, it is related that “the planet Jupiter suppressed the tail of the great storm.”
However, we are told that in the same places, notably on the Harvey Islands, “Jupiter was often mistaken for the Morning Star.”
On other islands of Polynesia, “the planets Venus and Jupiter seem to have been confused with each other.” Explorers found “that the name “Fauma” or “Paupiti” was given to Venus ... and that the same names were given to Jupiter.”
Early astronomy shared Ptolemy’s opinion that “Venus has the same powers” and also the nature of Jupiter, an opinion reflected also in the astrological belief that “Venus, when she becomes sole ruler of the event, in general brings about results similar to those of Jupiter.”
In one local cult in Egypt the name of “Isis”, originally belonged to Jupiter, “Osiris” being Saturn. In another local cult “Amon” was the name for Jupiter.
“Horus” originally was also Jupiter but when a new planet was born of Jupiter and became supreme in the sky, the onlookers could not readily recognize the exact nature of this change.
They gave the name of “Isis” to the planet Venus, and sometimes the name of “Horus”.
This must have caused confusion. “One is confused by the various relations which exist between mother and son (Isis and Horus).
Now he is her consort, now her brother; now a youth ... now an infant fed at her breast.”
“A noteworthy representation shows her [Isis] in association with Horus as the Morning Star, and thus in a strange relation ... which we cannot yet explain from the texts.”
Also “Ishtar” of Assyria-Babylonia was in early times the name of the planet Jupiter; later it was transferred to Venus, Jupiter retaining the name of “Marduk”.
“Baal”, still another name for Jupiter, was an earlier name for Saturn, and later on became the name of Venus, sometimes the feminine form “Baalath” or “Belith” being used.
Ishtar, also, was at first a male planet, subsequently becoming a female planet.
Let us Worship Venus
Now that it has been shown it was Venus which, at an interval of fifty-two years, caused two cosmic catastrophes in the fifteenth century before the present era, we understand also the different historical connections between Venus and these catastrophes.
In numerous biblical and rabbinical passages it is said that when the Israelites went from Mount Sinai into the desert, they were covered by clouds.
These clouds were illuminated by the pillar of fire, so that they gave a pale light.
With this should be connected a statement of Isaiah: “The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light; they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, the light of Noga was upon them.”
“Noga” is Venus; it is, in fact, the usual name of this planet in Hebrew and it is therefore an omission not to translate it so.
Amos says that during the forty years in the wilderness the Israelites did not sacrifice to the Lord, but carried “the star of your god, which you made to yourselves.”
St. Jerome interprets this “star of your god” as Lucifer (the Morning Star).
What image of the star was carried in the wilderness? Was it the bull (calf) of Aaron or the brazen serpent of Moses? “And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole.”
Of this serpent it is said that it was made with the purpose of providing a cure for those bitten by snakes.
Seven and a half centuries later this brazen serpent of Moses was broken by King Hezekiah, guided in his monotheistic zeal by the prophet Isaiah, “for unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it.”
The brazen serpent was most probably the image of the pillar of cloud and fire which appeared as a moving serpent to all peoples of the world.
St. Jerome apparently had this image in view when he interpreted the star mentioned by Amos as Lucifer.
Or was it the “star of David,” the six-pointed star?
The Egyptian Venus-Isis, the Babylonian Venus-Ishtar, the Greek Venus-Athene were goddesses pictured with serpents, and sometimes represented as dragons.
“Ishtar, the fearful dragon,” wrote Assurbanipal.
The Morning Star of the Toltecs, Quetzal-cohuatl (Quetzal-coatl), also is represented as a great dragon or serpent: “cohuatl” in Nahuatl is “serpent,” and the name means “a feathered serpent.”
The Morning Star of the Indians of the Chichimec tribe in Mexico is called “Serpent cloud,”
a remarkable name because of its relation to the pillar of cloud and the clouds that covered the globe after the contact of the earth with Venus.
When Quetzal-cohuatl, the lawgiver of the Toltecs, disappeared on the approach of a great catastrophe and the Morning Star that bore the same name rose for the first time in the sky, the Toltecs “regulated the reckoning of the days, the nights, and the hours according to the difference in the time.”
The people of Ugarit (Ras-Shamra) in Syria addressed Anat, their planet Venus: “You reverse the position of the dawn in the sky.”
In the Mexican Codex Borgia, the Evening Star is represented with the solar disc on its back.
In the Babylonian psalms Ishtar says:
By causing the heavens to tremble and the earth to quake, By the gleam which lightens in the sky, By the blazing fire which rains upon the hostile land, I am Ishtar. Ishtar am I by the light that arises in heaven, Ishtar the queen of heaven am I by the light that arises in heaven. I am Ishtar; on high I journey ... The heavens I cause to quake, the earth I cause to shake, That is my fame. ... She that lightens in the horizon of heaven, Whose name is honored in the habitations of men, That is my fame. “Queen of heaven above and beneath” let be spoken, That is my fame. The mountains I overwhelm altogether, That is my fame.
The Morning-Evening Star Ishtar was called also “the star of lamentation.”
The Persian Mithra, the same as Tistrya, descended from the heavens and “let a stream of fire flow toward the earth,” “signifying that a blazing star, becoming in some way present here below, filled our world with its devouring heat.”
In Aphaca in Syria fire fell from the sky, and it was asserted that it fell from Venus: “by which one would think of fire that had fallen from the planet Venus.”
The place became holy and was visited each year by pilgrims.
The festivals of the planet Venus were held in the spring. “Our ancestors dedicated the month of April to Venus,” wrote Macrobius.
Baal of the Canaanites and of the Northern Kingdom of Israel was worshiped in Dan, the city of the cult of the calf, and throngs visited there during the week of Passover.
The cult of Venus spread to Judea also.
According to II Kings (23: 5), King Josiah in the seventh century “put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets, and to all the host of heaven.”
Baal, the sun, the moon, and the planets, is the division used also by Democritus: Venus, the sun, the moon, and the planets.